China’s border disputes with 18 countries, Imperialism or Expansionist Designs?

Did it ever occur to you that China has territorial disputes with all the nations it shares a border with and eight other countries? The exception is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which it keeps on its payroll. A look into the phenomenon that is Chinese imperialism and its expansionist designs.

Historical Map Of China

Historical Map Of China

Here is a list of the countries that have territorial and border disputes with China:

  1. Japan :: Parts of the East China Sea, particularly the Senkaku Islands. Also, on occasion, the Ryukyu Islands, on the grounds that the completely independent Kingdom of Ryukyu was once a vassal state of China. The Kingdom of Ryukyu terminated tributary relations with China in 1874.
  2. Vietnam :: China claims large parts of Vietnam on historical precedent (Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644). Also, Macclesfield Bank, Paracel Islands, parts of the South China Sea and the Spratly Islands.
  3. India :: China illegally occupies 38,000 sq km (Aksai Chin) of land in Jammu & Kashmir. It also holds 5,180 km of Indian territory in Pakistan occupied Kashmir under Sino-Pak agreement of 1963. At the heart of Sino-Indian boundary dispute is the issue of Arunachal Pradesh (90,000 sq km), which China describes as “Southern Tibet”. Beijing is demanding that at least the Tawang Tract of Arunachal Pradesh, if not the whole of the state, be transferred to China.
  4. Nepal :: China claims parts of Nepal dating back to the Sino-Nepalese War in 1788-1792. China claims they are part of Tibet, therefore part of China.
  5. North Korea :: Baekdu Mountain and Jiandao. China has also on occasion claimed all of North Korea on historical grounds (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368).
  6. The Philippines :: Parts of the South China Sea, particularly Scarborough Shoal and the Spratly Islands. Russia :: 160,000 square kilometres still unilaterally claimed by China, despite China signing several agreements. Singapore :: Parts of the South China Sea.
  7. South Korea :: Parts of the East China Sea. China has also on occasion claimed all of South Korea on historical grounds (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368).
  8. Bhutan :: Bhutanese enclaves in Tibet, namely Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar, Tarchen and Zuthulphuk. Also Kula Kangri and mountainous areas to the west of this peak, plus the western Haa District of Bhutan.
  9. Taiwan :: China claims all of Taiwan, but particular disputes are: Macclesfi eld Bank, Paracel Islands, Scarborough Shoal, parts of the South China Sea and the Spratly Islands. The Paracel Islands, also called Xisha Islands in Vietnamese, is a group of islands in the South China Sea whose sovereignty is disputed among China, Taiwan and Vietnam disputes with Burma.
  10. Kazakhstan :: There are continual unilateral claims by China on Kazakhstan territory, despite new agreements, in China’s favour signed every few years.
  11. Laos :: China claims large areas of Laos on historical precedent (China’s Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368).
  12. Brunei :: Over Spratly Islands. The Spratly Islands is a disputed group of more than 750 reefs, islets, atolls, cays, and islands in the South China Sea. About 45 islands are occupied by small numbers of military forces from the People’s Republic of China, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia. Brunei has also claimed an exclusive economic zone in the southeastern part of the Spratlys encompassing just one area of small islands on Louisa Reef. This has led to escalating tensions.
  13. Tajikistan :: Chinese claims based on historical precedent (Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912).
  14. Cambodia :: China has, on occasion, claimed parts of Cambodia on historical precedent (China’s Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644). Indonesia :: Parts of the South China Sea.
  15. Kyrgyzstan :: China claims the majority of Kyrgyzstan on the grounds that it was unfairly forced to cede the territory (which it had formerly conquered) to Russia in the 19th century.
  16. Malaysia :: Over Parts of the South China Sea, particularly the Spratly Islands.
  17. Mongolia :: China claims all of Mongolia on historical precedent (Yuan Dynasty, 1271-1368). In fact, Mongolia, under Genghis Khan, occupied China.
  18. Afghanistan :: Afghan province of Bahdakhshan (despite a bilateral treaty of 1963, China still encroaches on Afghan territory).
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